Thursday, December 20, 2012

Static Routing and Default Routing Configurations















Use the knowledge you gain from the previous posts of router configuration since this activity needs knowledge up to static routing and we are going to learn something called Default routing here something which is similar to static routing.

Step1 

Design the above network and load it in to Packet Tracer Simulator.
(Router 2811 has 1 Ethernet and 2 Serial interfaces.Select R1 – S0 and R2 – S1 as DCE side for clocking inside the simulator)


















For R1 and R2, use 1841 routers and add single serial port for each.


















Since R3 needs two serial ports, use 1841 router but add two serial ports as shown above.

Step2

Name R1, R2 and R3 as Malabe, Metro and Matara.

For R0 -->
Router(config)#hostname MALABE

For R1 -->
Router(config)#hostname METRO

For R2 -->
Router(config)#hostname MATARA

Step3

Design a suitable IP plan for the above networks.Note: Subnetting can be applied. (eg. 10.1.0.0 255.255.0.0)


Applying Subnetting

Assume that the given Network address is 192.168.10.0 It belongs to class C. Therefore cannot harm to the first three Bytes. We have to make 5 subnets (3 LANs and 2 WANs) we can go for creating 8 subnets using 3 bits from the host side of the given Network address (23)

It's easy if you write the host ID expanded in binary to represent the eight bits meanwhile e leaving the network ID part as it is because we are not suppose to change it.

The possible combinations are:-

 Sub net addresses |   possible IP addresses
192.168.10.0000 0000 à 192.168.10.0         192.168.10.0   X because it is the network address of subnet zero
                                                            192.168.10.1                                                                
                                                            192.168.10.2
                                                            192.168.10.31 X because it is the DB address of subnet zero

192.168.10.0010 0000 à 192.168.10.32       192.168.10.32 X because it is the network address of subnet 1
                                                            192.168.10.33                                                             
                                                            192.168.10.34
                                                            192.168.10.63 X because it is the DB address of subnet 1

192.168.10.0100 0000 à 192.168.10.64       192.168.10.64 X because it is the network address of subnet 2
                                                            192.168.10.65                                                             
                                                            192.168.10.66
                                                            192.168.10.95 X because it is the DB address of subnet 2

192.168.10.0110 0000 à 192.168.10.96       192.168.10.96 X because it is the DB address of subnet 3
                                                            192.168.10.97                                                             
                                                            192.168.10.98
                                                            192.168.10.127 X because it is the DB address of subnet 3
192.168.10.1000 0000 à 192.168.10.128     192.168.10.128 X because it is the network address of subnet 4
                                                            192.168.10.129                                                          
                                                            192.168.10.130
                                                            192.168.10.159 X because it is the DB address of subnet 4

192.168.10.1010 0000 à 192.168.10.160     192.168.10.160 X because it is the network address of subnet 5
                                                            192.168.10.161                                                          
                                                            192.168.10.162
                                                            192.168.10.191 X because it is the DB address of subnet 5

192.168.10.1100 0000 à 192.168.10.192     192.168.10.192 X because it is the network address of subnet 6
                                                            192.168.10.193                                                          
                                                            192.168.10.194
                                                            192.168.10.223 X because it is the DB address of subnet 6

192.168.10.1100 0000 à 192.168.10.224     192.168.10.224 X because it is the network address of subnet 7
                                                            192.168.10.225                                                          
                                                            192.168.10.226
Note that the IP addresses within the above shown purple colored addresses for each subnet could be used as valid IP addresses for each sub network’s hosts. Make sure to omit the network address and direct broadcast (DB) address in each sub network. Since we only need two IP addresses for each of our five networks, simply the first two IPs could be used.

Step4 

Configure the Serial and Ethernet interfaces of routers and assign clock rate as 64000 for the R1 serial 0 and R2 serial 1 interfaces.

For Router1
MALABE(config)#interface fastEthernet 0/0
MALABE(config-if)#ip address 192.168.10.1 255.255.255.224
MALABE(config-if)#no shutdown

MALABE(config-if)#exit
MALABE(config)#interface serial 0/0/0
MALABE(config-if)#ip address 192.168.10.97 255.255.255.224
MALABE(config-if)#clock rate 64000

MALABE(config-if)#no shutdown
MALABE(config-if)#exit

For Router2
MATARA(config)#interface fastEthernet 0/0
MATARA(config-if)#ip address 192.168.10.65 255.255.255.224
MATARA(config-if)#no shutdown

MATARA(config-if)#exit
MATARA(config)#interface serial 0/0/0
MATARA(config-if)#ip address 192.168.10.130 255.255.255.224
MATARA(config-if)#no shutdown
MATARA(config-if)#exit

For Router3
METRO(config)#interface fastEthernet 0/0
METRO(config-if)#ip address 192.168.10.33 255.255.255.224
METRO(config-if)#no shutdown

METRO(config-if)#exit
METRO(config)#interface serial 0/0/0
METRO(config-if)#ip address 192.168.10.98 255.255.255.224
METRO(config-if)#no shutdown

METRO(config-if)#exit
METRO(config)#interface serial 0/0/1
METRO(config-if)#ip address 192.168.10.129 255.255.255.224
METRO(config-if)#clock rate 64000
METRO(config-if)#no shutdown

METRO(config-if)#exit




Step5

Configure the PC’s. (IP address, Subnet Mask and Default Gateway)


Step6

Use ‘ping’ command to check the connectivity.

IP Address......................: 192.168.10.2
Subnet Mask.....................: 255.255.255.224
Default Gateway.................: 192.168.10.1

PC>ping 192.168.10.1

Pinging 192.168.10.1 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 192.168.10.1: bytes=32 time=63ms TTL=255
Reply from 192.168.10.1: bytes=32 time=32ms TTL=255
Reply from 192.168.10.1: bytes=32 time=32ms TTL=255
Reply from 192.168.10.1: bytes=32 time=31ms TTL=255

Ping statistics for 192.168.10.1:
Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 31ms, Maximum = 63ms, Average = 39ms

PC>ping 192.168.10.34

Pinging 192.168.10.34 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 192.168.10.1: Destination host unreachable.
Reply from 192.168.10.1: Destination host unreachable.
Reply from 192.168.10.1: Destination host unreachable.
Reply from 192.168.10.1: Destination host unreachable.

Ping statistics for 192.168.10.34:
Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 0, Lost = 4 (100% loss),

PC>ping 192.168.10.66

Pinging 192.168.10.66 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 192.168.10.1: Destination host unreachable.
Reply from 192.168.10.1: Destination host unreachable.
Reply from 192.168.10.1: Destination host unreachable.
Reply from 192.168.10.1: Destination host unreachable.

Ping statistics for 192.168.10.66:
Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 0, Lost = 4 (100% loss),

PC>

The above ping commands of PC0 summarizes that still the data exchange could be done successfully within Local Networks only. Networks still cannot identify their remote networks successfully. So we need to route to perform that task.

Step7 

Assign Static Routing to all the routers and check the connectivity.

Static routing is done by the administrator to make the remote networks of each network to identify and exchange data when the remote network addresses and subnet masks are known.


Assigning Default Routing to necessary routers.

Default routing is kind of similar to static routing but this is done when the network administrator doesn’t know the exact network addresses and subnet masks of remotely situated networks.

Note: - If we need to perform default routing to the same networks that we have already done static routing, then first we need to remove the static routing commands from them and then assign default routing commands.

To remove all the static routings use the below shown commands for each.

MALABE(config)#no ip route 192.168.10.64 255.255.255.0 192.168.10.98
MALABE(config)# no ip route 192.168.10.32 255.255.255.0 192.168.10.98

METRO(config)# no ip route 192.168.10.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.10.97
METRO(config)# no ip route 192.168.10.64 255.255.255.0 192.168.10.130

MATARA(config)#no ip route 192.168.10.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.10.129
MATARA(config)# noip route 192.168.10.32 255.255.255.0 192.168.10.129

How to set default routing…

MALABE(config)# ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 192.168.10.98
METRO(config)# ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 192.168.10.97
MATARA(config)# ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 192.168.10.129

Note :- Since we don’t know the destination Network addresses and subnet masks, we simply assign them as 0.0.0.0 but the default gateway, what we already should know should be assigned as it is.

Final Step

Check the connectivity again.
PC>ipconfig

IP Address......................: 192.168.10.2
Subnet Mask.....................: 255.255.255.224
Default Gateway.................: 192.168.10.1

PC>ping 192.168.10.1

Pinging 192.168.10.1 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 192.168.10.1: bytes=32 time=31ms TTL=255
Reply from 192.168.10.1: bytes=32 time=31ms TTL=255
Reply from 192.168.10.1: bytes=32 time=31ms TTL=255
Reply from 192.168.10.1: bytes=32 time=31ms TTL=255

Ping statistics for 192.168.10.1:
    Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
    Minimum = 31ms, Maximum = 31ms, Average = 31ms
PC>ping 192.168.10.34

Pinging 192.168.10.34 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 192.168.10.34: bytes=32 time=109ms TTL=124
Reply from 192.168.10.34: bytes=32 time=125ms TTL=124
Reply from 192.168.10.34: bytes=32 time=125ms TTL=124
Reply from 192.168.10.34: bytes=32 time=125ms TTL=124

Ping statistics for 192.168.10.34:
    Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
    Minimum = 109ms, Maximum = 125ms, Average = 121ms

PC>ping 192.168.10.66

Pinging 192.168.10.66 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 192.168.10.66: bytes=32 time=125ms TTL=125
Reply from 192.168.10.66: bytes=32 time=125ms TTL=125
Reply from 192.168.10.66: bytes=32 time=109ms TTL=125
Reply from 192.168.10.66: bytes=32 time=125ms TTL=125

Ping statistics for 192.168.10.66:
    Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
    Minimum = 109ms, Maximum = 125ms, Average = 121ms

PC>

Now the data exchange throughout the network is done successfully.

Do not forget to copy the running-config files to the startup configuration files as shown below. This makes the running-configuration information (that are volatile and lost when the router is switched off). To non-volatile memory in NVRAM.

MALABE#copy running-config  startup-config
METRO#copy running-config startup-config
MATARA#copy running-config startup-config